Seeking to reduce dependence on US financial system and promote use of its own currency.
Pursuing a strategy of de-dollarization to shield itself from US sanctions and increase economic independence.
Facing US sanctions and seeking to increase use of other currencies for international trade.
Moving away from the US dollar in response to US sanctions and seeking to promote its own cryptocurrency.
Attempting to bypass US financial sanctions and increase use of Chinese currency.
Diversifying away from US dollar amid strained US-Turkey relations and to bolster economic ties with China and Russia.